ALL about the 16 Personality Types from under the hood

CLICK ON A TYPE button below to view the 16 Personality Type profiles

Learn about the 16 Personality Types – This section of the website is designed to help you understand:Personality Types in the workplace - for employers, managers and keyworkers

  • what Personality Types are
  • how types are constructed
  • why they are useful to know
  • how to discover your own personality type
  • how to discover another persons type (and which one’s may attract you)
  • how to use personality typing in the workplace
  • what the 16 specific Personality Types mean to you
  • how to use your new knowledge of personality types
  • what else you need to know to get the whole picture

Don’t know your type? Discover your Personality Type.

Myers Briggs type personality quiz

Take one of our free personality type quizzes.

Option 1: FREE 2 minute personality quiz

Option 2: Simple (short version) 4 question personality test.

Know your type? Click one your type buttons above to see your profile. 

Why is it useful to know my Personality Type?

By understanding your own personality type you begin to understand how your mind works. This means understanding:

  • how you like to spend your time
  • your preferences in terms of finding solutions and making decisions (and decisions shape your life, don’t they?)
  • how you like to work
  • How you like to be treated at work
  • what you like and dislike about other people

Therefore gaining an understanding of your personality type will help you in several fundamental areas of your life: Better relationships, better self awareness and understanding, a better working life.  Sound useful? Excellent. Read on…

Why is it useful to understand another persons personality type? 

One word. Relationships. Are your relationships important to you? I thought so. I am talking about personal relationships and Personality Types AND use in professional relationships,

If you understand how people around you are thinking, then you can get on with them better and better influence and motivate them. This can therefore be beneficial in personal relationships and also in work environments, managing others, selling and other customer engagement roles.

Where does Personality Type theory come from?

The 16 personality types are derived from the work of Carl Jung. Jung wrote the definitive book Psychological Types in 1921 in which he observed that we all have four distinct parts to our personality:

  • Where we focus our attention and energy (We are mainly Introverted or Extraverted)
  • The way that we perceive the world and take in information (We are mainly Sensing or Intuiting)
  • The way that we make decisions or judgements (We are mainly Thinking or Feeling)
  • How we deal with the outside world (We are mainly Judging or Perceiving)

Utilising these four personality parts, psychological types are considered ways of describing and explaining certain consistent differences in the ways that people use their minds.

4 Parts to Personality

More on the 4 parts to personality

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It is important to note a couple of things before we go on:

  • Each of the personality types are considered equal
  • Each of the four parts of personality should be considered continuums. Eg As individuals we are not 100% introvert or 100% extravert. We will be somewhere in between. Which means that we will have some introverted traits and some extraverted traits. We will also probably have a preference for one or the other, this is what determines our overall type.

What do the 16 4-letter combinations in personality stand for?

I=Introvert, E=Extravert, S=Sensor, N=Intuitor, T=Thinker, F=Feeler, J=Judger, P=Perceiver

  1. ISTJ  Personality Type – Introvert, sensor, thinker, judger
  2. ISFJ Personality Type – Introvert, sensor, feeler, judger
  3. ESTP Personality Type – Extravert, sensor, thinker, perceiver
  4. ESFP Personality Type  – Extravert, sensor. feeler, perceiver
  5. INTJ Personality Type  – Introvert, intuitor (N), thinker, judger
  6. INFJ Personality Type– Intr0vert, intuitor, feeler, judger
  7. ENTP Personality Type – Extravert, intuitor, thinker, judger
  8. ENFP Personality Type – Extravert, intuitor, feeler, perceiver
  9. ISTP Personality Type – Introvert, sensor, thinker, perceiver
  10. INTP Personality Type – Introvert, intuitor, thinker, perceiver
  11. ESTJ Personality Type – Extravert, sensor, thinker, judger
  12. ENTJ Personality Type – Extravert, intuitor, thinker, judger
  13. ISFP Personality Type – Introvert, sensor, feeler, perceiver
  14. INFP Personality Type – Introvert, intuitor, feeler, perceiver
  15. ESFJ Personality Type – Extravert, sensor, feeler, judger
  16. ENFJ Personality Type – Extravert, intuitor, feeler, judger

Identifying personality type

Each of the four “parts” to personality type is a continuum. You will recognise certain words associated with your own or another’s personality. As you identify with some of the words it will give you an indication as to where on the continuum your personality fits.

This is a predictor only and shouldn’t be viewed as definitive.


Part 1 – Introvert or Extravert (I or E)

(1)  Introvert or Extravert (I or E)

(2)  Sensor or Intuitor (S or N)

























(3)  Thinker or Feeler (T or F)

(4)  Judger or Perceiver (J or P)
















Early Starting






Pressure Prompted



In terms of these specific words. when you are considering your own “traits” you may find that it is easier to think of how others describe you or may have described perceiving you.  Often people are able to associate these words with other people more easily than they are able to associate them accurately with themselves. We are talking about the “essence” of you and this is not something that we are always consciously aware of. This is one of the reasons why this system and discovering your personality is useful.

Eg We may like to consider ourselves “Spontaneous” – however is this really us? Some people who like to consider themselves as spontaneous are in fact spontaneous, others are less so (more scheduled). We may consider ourselves “Compassionate” and would “Reasonable” be a better description?

The way that your mind works, you when you consider each word a picture of someone you know may pop into your mind. I have one in my mind associated with the word “Open-ended” and unfortunately it isn’t myself (I’m more of a planner)!


As you look at the lists of words you may find it useful to compare them in order to identify your type more easily. The words are laid out above in a sequence that allows you to do that.


  • In terms of Introvert or Extravert, are you more Reflective or Gregarious? Are you more Active or Quiet?
  • In terms of Thinker or Feeler, are you more Compassionate or Reasonable?

Don’t forget, you will have the capacity to be all of these things and so we are looking for your preference.

Your own personality preferences

As you begin to understand more about how the Types are made up and the four parts to them so you will begin to identify more and more with one side of the continuums over the other.

Have a read of the following to help you narrow down your choices:

(1)  Introvert or Extravert (I or E)

(2)  Sensor or Intuitor (S or N)


Good listener


Few close relationships

Sit in the background

One thing at a time

Think then speak

Internal validation



Party Organiser

Lots of friends

Group participation

Multi tasking

Speak first, think later

Outside validation


Facts, figures


Tangible results

Task at hand

Don’t tend to fantasise much

In the now

Read magazine cover to cover


Relationship of ideas


Like Puzzles

How things relate/work

Ideas & theories

Future Oriented

How does this all fit together?

(3)  Thinker or Feeler (T or F)

(4)  Judger or Perceiver (J or P)


Detached thinking



Firm Minded

Decisions based on judgement






Fair and just decisions

Decisions based on values

Want to do the “right thing” by others


On time

Make decisions easily



Need Closure

Like to make lists


Punctuality less important

In the moment

“Play it by ear”

Adapt behaviour to others

No worries

High options

Having read this far you probably have a good inkling for which preferences you have. Are you an Introvert or an Extravert? A Sensor or an iNtuitor? A thinker or a feeler? A judger or a perceiver?

Still not sure? It is time to do a test.

How about a close relation, partner or friend. What Personality type would you give them based on the information that you have so far?

Now you know what your Personality type is and now you have an idea what type certain people around you are you might be thinking…..

“This is interesting but what can do I with this information?”

Good question…

Myers & Briggs determined that dependent upon our type (one of the 16 personality types), different parts of our personality have more influence over us than other parts and that these more dominant parts provide a level of definition over our character. Likewise, they considered that certain areas of our personality would be less prominent or we would be less keen to utilise these areas.

Therefore, if we know which areas we have a strong preference for, we can ensure that we are living our lives to our strengths (maximising our strengths). We can design our life and the way that we spend our time to ensure that we are creating the greatest potential for happiness.

If we know where our weaknesses lie, then we can focus our development on those areas so that we grow to our potential.

If we are in an organisation and we have a job vacancy that needs filling or a business problem, then we can design our ideal staff profile based on the specific requirements of the job or the problem.

If we are searching for a job opportunity, then we can identify the perfect roles to fit our own personality profile.

Myers & Briggs observed that parts or functions of personality could be prioritised as:

  1. Dominant Function – the preference with the most influence
  2. Auxiliary Function – next most influential part
  3. Tertiary Function – 3rd ranked in terms of influence
  4. Inferior Function – function with the least influence

How do we work out the dominant, auxiliary, tertiary and inferior functions of personality?

The next stage of the process involves applying rules to our four letter type:

1) Either letter 2 or 3 in the type (S/N or T/F) is the Dominant Function, the other is the Auxiliary Function.

The dominant, auxiliary, tertiary and inferior functions of personality according to Myers Briggs

2) One of either letter 2 or 3 is Extraverted, the other is Introverted. See diagram above.

If J is the preference then T/F is extraverted (and therefore S/N is introverted).

If P is the preference then S/N is extraverted (and therefore T/F is introverted).

One of Either s:n or T:F is introverted the other is extraverted - myers briggs

3) Letter 1 (I/E) tells us what the preferred attitude is, Extraversion or Introversion.

4) The dominant function is typically derived from the preferred attitude of I/E.

Therefore using the profile INTJ as an example:


T is extraverted (determined by J) so N is introverted. Introverted Intuition is therefore the dominant function.

Using INTP as a second example:


N is extraverted (determined by P) so T is introverted. Introverted Thinking is the dominant function.

5) The auxiliary function is the other letter of 2 or 3.

So in the case of example 1 – INTJ – it is Extraverted Thinking – giving (Dominant) Introverted Intuition and (Auxiliary) Extraverted Thinking.

In example 2 – INTP – it is Extraverted Intuition – giving (Dominant) Introverted Thinking and (Auxiliary) Extraverted Intuition.

The tertiary function is opposite to the auxiliary function. 

EG INTJ it would be Feeling. For INTP it would be Sensing.

7) The inferior function is opposite to the dominant function.

EG INTJ it is Extraverted Sensing. For INFP it is Extraverted Feeling.

Fortunately for you we have done the work for you!

See the table below:

TypeDynamic Name (Dominant with Auxiliary) – Most likely, most comfortableTertiaryInferior – Less likely,  less comfortable
ISTJIntroverted Sensing with Extraverted ThinkingFeelingExtraverted Intuition
ISFJIntroverted Sensing with Extraverted FeelingThinkingExtraverted Intuition
ESTPExtraverted Sensing with Introverted ThinkingFeelingIntroverted Intuition
ESFPExtraverted Sensing with Introverted FeelingThinkingIntroverted Intuition
INTJIntroverted Intuition with Extraverted ThinkingFeelingExtraverted Sensing
INFJIntroverted Intuition with Extraverted FeelingThinkingExtraverted Sensing
ENTPExtraverted Intuition with Introverted ThinkingFeelingIntroverted Sensing
ENFPExtraverted Intuition with Introverted FeelingThinkingIntroverted Sensing
ISTPIntroverted Thinking with Extraverted SensingIntuitionExtraverted Feeling
INTPIntroverted Thinking with Extraverted IntuitionSensingExtraverted Feeling
ESTJExtraverted Thinking with Introverted SensingIntuitionIntroverted Feeling
ENTJExtraverted Thinking with Introverted IntuitionSensingIntroverted Feeling
ISFPIntroverted Feeling with Extraverted SensingIntuitionExtraverted Thinking
INFPIntroverted Feeling with Extraverted IntuitionSensingExtraverted Thinking
ESFJExtraverted Feeling with Introverted SensingIntuitionIntroverted Thinking
ENFJExtraverted Feeling with Introverted IntuitionSensingIntroverted Thinking

What do these Personality type dynamics imply? What do they mean?

The dominant function implies that someone does it a lot, is comfortable doing it and is therefore probably good at it. 

An inferior function is the opposite – normally a weakness.

Someone who’s Dynamic is:

  • Introverted Sensing – favours (is good at and does a lot of) recalling facts and details of past events
  • Extraverted Thinking – prefers dealing primarily with understanding and organizing the external world. Wants everything to make logical sense, and has very little patience of unproductive activities
  • Extraverted Feeling – deals with understanding others emotions and feelings in the present moment
  • Extraverted Sensing – lives in the present moment
  • Introverted Thinking – wants the world to make sense in a logical manner
  • Introverted Feeling – deals with the person’s own individual feelings and beliefs
  • Introverted Intuition – deals with understanding how the world works through internal intuitive analysis
  • Extraverted Intuition – deals with experiencing the outer world, noticing possibilities, and what could be

Now it is time to look at the different types in detail in order to see how they interact, compliment each other, conflict and consider what the development opportunities are for each type.

What is your Personality Type? Take our personality test for FREE now.